The Universe – Universo Viviente http://universoviviente.com/ Fri, 11 Jun 2021 20:24:51 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.2 https://universoviviente.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-icon-32x32.png The Universe – Universo Viviente http://universoviviente.com/ 32 32 A “giant arc” spanning 1.3 billion light years across the cosmos should not exist https://universoviviente.com/a-giant-arc-spanning-1-3-billion-light-years-across-the-cosmos-should-not-exist/ https://universoviviente.com/a-giant-arc-spanning-1-3-billion-light-years-across-the-cosmos-should-not-exist/#respond Fri, 11 Jun 2021 18:48:47 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/a-giant-arc-spanning-1-3-billion-light-years-across-the-cosmos-should-not-exist/

A newly discovered crescent of galaxies covering 3.3 billion lightyears is one of the largest known structures in the universe and challenges some of astronomers’ most basic assumptions about the cosmos.

The epic arrangement, called the Giant Arc, is made up of galaxies, galactic clusters, and a lot of gas and dust. It is located 9.2 billion light years away and spans about a fifteenth of the observable universe.


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Denver Art Museum hosts new exhibit titled ‘Oracles of the Pink Universe’ by artist Simphiwe Ndzube https://universoviviente.com/denver-art-museum-hosts-new-exhibit-titled-oracles-of-the-pink-universe-by-artist-simphiwe-ndzube/ https://universoviviente.com/denver-art-museum-hosts-new-exhibit-titled-oracles-of-the-pink-universe-by-artist-simphiwe-ndzube/#respond Fri, 11 Jun 2021 00:16:23 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/denver-art-museum-hosts-new-exhibit-titled-oracles-of-the-pink-universe-by-artist-simphiwe-ndzube/

Denver Art Museum hosts new exhibition titled “Oracles of the Pink Universe” by artist Simphiwe NdzubeIn the first American museum exhibition by contemporary South African artist Simphiwe Ndzube, Oracles of the Pink Universe presents eight new works exploring the interplay between magical realism and history.

Calwood, Boulder County cleanse flies off to heal burn scarAlmost a year after the Calwood fire burned more than 10,000 acres, also charring many homes, Boulder County is working to preserve what remains of the landscape. Burnt trees are now being cut, shredded, and scattered throughout what was once forest as mulch.

A brief relief from the heat after the hottest day of the yearWatch Lauren Whitney’s Prediction

Summer Blitz DUI campaign kicks off June 11The CDOT, state patrol, and local law enforcement agencies are working together on a summer DUI blitz campaign.

As the All-Star Game approaches, resale ticket prices soar onlineAs judge dismisses Georgia All-Star lawsuit, resale ticket prices skyrocket for the Denver game.

Evacuations Ordered in New ‘Platte River Fire’ in Jefferson CountyTeams respond to a wildfire in Jefferson County, west of Roxborough State Park. It appears to have started Thursday afternoon from a failed power line, Jeffco officials said.

Colorado Seniors Class of 2021 ClassOf2020CRED No10CBS4 wants to recognize Colorado’s Class of 2021 by featuring photos of senior graduates.

Colorado Seniors Class of 2021 ClassOf2020CRED No9CBS4 wants to recognize Colorado’s Class of 2021 by featuring photos of senior graduates.

Colorado Seniors Class of 2021 ClassDe2020RisasNo10CBS4 wants to recognize Colorado’s Class of 2021 by featuring photos of graduating seniors

Colorado Seniors Class of 2021 ClassDe2020RisasNo9CBS4 wants to recognize Colorado’s Class of 2021 by featuring photos of graduating seniors

Mesa County has public health alert after large-scale transmission of highly contagious COVID variantThe variant first identified in India was detected in Mesa County a month ago.

Isabella Guzman, who stabbed her mother 79 times, will be allowed to leave the public hospital for certain activitiesA Colorado woman who stabbed her mother to death in 2013 won a round in her bid for eventual freedom.

COVID in Colorado: 12 counties exceed vaccination rate by 70% with at least 1 doseA total of 12 counties in Colorado have exceeded the 70% vaccination rate for the eligible population. As of Wednesday 3,102,816 Coloradans were immunized with one dose and 2,698,515 people were fully immunized.

Boil water advisory issued following water pump failure at Castle PinesThe Metropolitan District of Castle Pines North has given its customers a “thumbs up” to resume outdoor irrigation, but the state health department has asked the district to issue a boil water advisory for customers as well. .

Isabella Guzman, who stabbed her mother 79 times, will be allowed to leave the public hospital for certain activitiesA Colorado woman who stabbed her mother to death in 2013 won a round in her bid for eventual freedom. Katie Johnston reports.

Colorado Comeback Cash: First 5 Students Receive $ 50,000 ScholarshipColorado Governor Jared Polis announced the top five recipients of $ 50,000 scholarships under a program designed to encourage students to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

2 Coloradans launch website that helps people going through divorceGetting a divorce is not easy – the process can be scary, stressful, and lonely. A new website helps make the process a bit more manageable.

Opening of a ‘safe outdoor space’ at Regis University for homeless peopleA new safe outdoor space for homeless people is now open at Regis University in Denver. It is the third managed campsite to open in the city.

Kendra Durnan, 18, was hit and killed on I-25 after crash involving Elk18-year-old Kendra Durnan got out of an SUV after a crash involving a moose – and was shot and killed.

The heat wave will take a one-day break on FridayWatch Dave Aguilera’s forecast

VIDEO: 6 cameras capture Black Bear’s first momentum to freedomWildlife officers moved a bear out of the Frasier Meadows area of ​​Boulder in early June – and recorded its first run to freedom with six different cameras.

Start date announced for new Pikes Peak summit complexThe new Summit complex atop Pikes Peak will open to visitors on June 24, officials said.

Detour from downtown Denver in place as the crane arrives at the Colorado Convention CenterIf you’re traveling to downtown Denver on Thursday, there are a few detours you’ll want to know about ahead of time.

Missing Louisville Woman, 73, Found in Jefferson CountyA 73-year-old woman with cognitive impairment was found alive and well – more than 24 hours later and more than 15 miles away. Katie Johnston reports.


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Scientists have proven what causes the Northern Lights: NPR https://universoviviente.com/scientists-have-proven-what-causes-the-northern-lights-npr/ https://universoviviente.com/scientists-have-proven-what-causes-the-northern-lights-npr/#respond Thu, 10 Jun 2021 09:00:31 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/scientists-have-proven-what-causes-the-northern-lights-npr/

The Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis) light up the sky from Reinfjorden to Reine on the Lofoten Islands in the Arctic Circle on September 8, 2017.

Jonathan Nackstrand / AFP via Getty Images


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Jonathan Nackstrand / AFP via Getty Images


The Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis) light up the sky from Reinfjorden to Reine on the Lofoten Islands in the Arctic Circle on September 8, 2017.

Jonathan Nackstrand / AFP via Getty Images

Nothing can spoil our joy in the Northern Lights, or Northern Lights, those ribbons of blue, green and purple light that cascade from the sky. Not even knowing for sure what is causing them.

Physicists have long speculated on what is behind this very specific light phenomenon that occurs in the polar regions of the Earth.

Now they are certain.

A item published in the journal Nature Communication this week suggests that the natural light show begins when disturbances on the sun pull on the Earth’s magnetic field. This creates cosmic ripples known as Alfvén waves which launch electrons at high speed into Earth’s atmosphere where they create the aurora.

“It’s been sort of theorized that this is where the energy exchange occurs,” said Gregory Howes, associate professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Iowa. “But no one had ever made a definitive demonstration that Alfven waves actually accelerate these electrons under the proper conditions you have in space above aurora.”

How the dawn is formed

The sun is volatile and violent events, such as geomagnetic storms, can reverberate through the universe.

In some cases, the sun’s disturbances are so strong that they cling to the earth’s magnetic field like a rubber band, pulling it away from our planet.

But, like a tight rubber band when released, the magnetic field returns and the force of that recoil creates powerful ripples known as Alfven waves about 80,000 miles above the ground. As these waves get closer to Earth, they travel even faster thanks to the planet’s magnetic pull.

On the same space highway, electrons also travel to Earth, but not as fast as the Alfvén waves.

Sometimes electrons hitchhike on these super-fast Alfvén waves, reaching speeds as high as 45 million miles per hour as they hurtle downward.

“Think about surfing,” said Jim Schroeder, physics professor at Wheaton College and lead author of the article. “To surf you have to paddle at the right speed for an ocean wave to lift you up and speed you up, and we found that electrons surf. If they were moving at the right speed relative to the wave, they would. be picked up and sped up. “

An illustration of how electrons “surf” on the passage of Alfven waves.

Austin Montelius / College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Iowa


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An illustration of how electrons “surf” on the passage of Alfven waves.

Austin Montelius / College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Iowa

When electrons reach the top thin layer of the Earth, they collide with molecules of nitrogen and oxygen, sending them into an excited state. The excited electrons eventually calm down and release light, which we think of as dawn.

What experience has shown

While scientists have believed for decades that Alfven waves were responsible for accelerating electrons, this lab experiment produced the only definitive evidence.

“No one has ever measured this between electrons and Alfvén waves before,” Schroeder told NPR.

The researchers used what is called the Large Plasma Device at UCLA’s Basic Plasma Science Facility to recreate the interaction between Alfvén waves and electrons.

Such a study would have been impossible in space given that the researchers cannot predict when the auroras will occur and would not be able to account for other factors in the cosmos, they said.

The researchers suggested that their findings could help understand more broadly how particles are energized and also give them a clearer picture of how events on the sun affect near-Earth space as well as the technological infrastructure that we have there, like satellites.

Another much simpler advantage for Schroeder is this type of research.

“It appeals to our sense of awe and wonder,” he said. “We have been captivated by auroras for thousands of years and gaze at the night sky and appreciate their beauty. And I have always found that better understanding how something is created enhances my appreciation of that beauty.”


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The key to carbon-free cars? Berkeley Lab scientists look to the stars https://universoviviente.com/the-key-to-carbon-free-cars-berkeley-lab-scientists-look-to-the-stars/ https://universoviviente.com/the-key-to-carbon-free-cars-berkeley-lab-scientists-look-to-the-stars/#respond Wed, 09 Jun 2021 14:00:48 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/the-key-to-carbon-free-cars-berkeley-lab-scientists-look-to-the-stars/

Illustration of a supernova explosion. Such swirling masses of matter gave shape to the first forms of carbon – precursors of molecules, according to some scientists, are linked to the synthesis of the first forms of life on Earth. (Credit: NASA Images / Shutterstock)

For nearly half a century, astrophysicists and organic chemists have been looking for the origins of C6H6, the benzene ring – an elegant hexagonal molecule made up of 6 carbon atoms and 6 hydrogen atoms.

Astrophysicists say the benzene ring could be the cornerstone of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, the most basic materials formed from the explosion of carbon-rich dying stars. This swirling mass of matter would eventually give shape to the first forms of carbon – precursors of molecules, according to some scientists, are linked to the synthesis of the first forms of life on Earth.

Paradoxically, PAHs also have a dark side. The industrial processes behind crude oil refineries and the inner workings of gasoline combustion engines can emit PAHs, which can snowball into toxic air pollutants like soot.

Exactly how the first benzene ring formed from stars in the early universe – and how combustion engines trigger the chemical reaction that turns the benzene ring into polluting soot particles – has long mystified scientists.

But now, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Florida International University have demonstrated the first real-time measurement, using laboratory methods, of particles unstable called free radicals reacting under cosmic conditions. , causing elemental carbon and hydrogen atoms to fuse into primary benzene rings.

Researchers say their findings, recently published in the journal Science Advances, are essential to understand how the universe evolved with the growth of carbon compounds. This idea could also help the auto industry to make cleaner combustion engines.

Senior scientist Musahid Ahmed (left) and postdoctoral researcher Wenchao Lu near the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab on May 21, 2021. They used a special technique, which Ahmed adapted 10 years ago to the ALS, to stop a so-called "radical self-reaction of propargyl" before the formation of soot.  (Credit: Thor Swift / Berkeley Lab)

Senior scientist Musahid Ahmed (left) and postdoctoral researcher Wenchao Lu near the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab on May 21, 2021. They used a special technique, which Ahmed adapted 10 years ago to ALS, to stop a so-called “radical propargyl self-reaction” before soot builds up. (Credit: Thor Swift / Berkeley Lab)

A type of free radical called a propargyl radical (C3H3) is extremely reactive due to its propensity to lose an electron and has been involved in soot formation for decades. Researchers believed that the recombination of two propargyl free radicals, C3H3+ C3H3·, Gave birth to the first aromatic ring, benzene.

The current study is the first demonstration of the so-called “radical self-reaction of propargyl” under astrochemical and combustion conditions. Using a high-temperature, coin-sized chemical reactor called a “hot nozzle,” researchers simulated the high-pressure, high-temperature environment inside a combustion engine. as well as the hydrocarbon-rich atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan, and observed the formation of isomers – molecules with the same chemical formula but different atomic structures – from two propargyl radicals leading to the benzene ring.

The hot nozzle technique, whose lead co-author Mousahid Ahmed, senior scientist in the chemical sciences division of the Berkeley Lab, adapted 10 years ago from the Berkeley Lab Advanced light source (ALS) for synchrotron experiments, relies on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy (VUV) to detect individual isomers. ALS is a type of particle accelerator known as a synchrotron that generates extremely bright beams of light ranging from infrared to x-rays.

The researchers piloted the technique to stop the self-reaction of the propargyl radical – which takes place in microseconds – just before the larger PAHs and the subsequent soot formation. The convincing result supports the predictions of the experiments conducted by co-lead author Ralf Kaiser, professor of chemistry at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, and the quantum chemistry simulations made by co-lead author Alexander Mebel, professor of chemistry. at Florida International University.

They believe this discovery could one day lead to cleaner combustion engines. Have more efficient gas engines, some analysts say, is still important, as it may be another 25 years before the entire fleet of gasoline-powered cars can be replaced with electric vehicles (EVs). In addition, equipping planes and the gasoline component of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with cleaner combustion engines could help reduce CO emissions.2 emissions contributing to climate change.

Ahmed said he plans to expand the methods used to study the growth of PAHs and probe other systems relevant to the DOE’s mission, such as water desalination and environmental science.

“We would also like to go catch a buckyball, C60, one of nature’s greatest clues to the secrets of symmetry, ”said Ahmed.

Kaiser added that their research could help astronomers map the carbon of the universe and focus on the cosmic origins behind DNA’s carbon frames.

The co-authors of the article include Long Zhao at the University of Hawaii at Manoa; Wenchao Lu at the Berkeley lab; and Marsel Zagidullin and Valeriy Azyazov at the Samara National Research University in Russia.

The advanced light source is a user installation of the DOE at the Berkeley Lab.

This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science.

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Founded in 1931 on the conviction that the greatest scientific challenges are best met by teams, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and its scientists have received 14 Nobel Prizes. Today, researchers at the Berkeley Lab are developing sustainable energy and environmental solutions, creating useful new materials, pushing the boundaries of computing, and probing the mysteries of life, matter, and the universe. Scientists around the world rely on the laboratory facilities for their own scientific discoveries. Berkeley Lab is a national multi-program laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Office of Science, US Department of Energy.

The DOE’s Office of Science is the largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and works to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit energy.gov/science.


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Karl Denson’s Tiny Universe to perform on July 3 in Avon https://universoviviente.com/karl-densons-tiny-universe-to-perform-on-july-3-in-avon/ https://universoviviente.com/karl-densons-tiny-universe-to-perform-on-july-3-in-avon/#respond Tue, 08 Jun 2021 20:34:00 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/karl-densons-tiny-universe-to-perform-on-july-3-in-avon/

Karl Denson’s Tiny Universe will perform on Saturday July 3 at Harry A. Nottingham Park. (Photo by Al Wagner / Invision / AP)

Karl Denson’s Little Universe will be the star of the 35th Annual Tribute to the United States presented by Berkshire Hathaway HomeServices Colorado Properties on Saturday July 3 at Harry A. Nottingham Park. Live music will begin at 6:00 p.m. with Tab Benoit opening the show.

Singer and saxophonist Karl Denson faces the Tiny Universe as if he is preaching the gospel. Her energy and spirit are contagious as her songwriting serves a larger message of brotherhood, across generations, genders, religions and cultures. Highly regarded as one of the best live bands on the planet, Karl Denson’s Tiny Universe distills the wide stylistic range of their concert performances into their own authentic sound featuring Denson and his longtime seven-piece unit.

Tab Benoit is a Grammy-nominated singer, songwriter and guitarist who has built a remarkable career spanning over 30 years based on his gritty and moving Delta Swamp Blues and has acquired a legion of dedicated fans along the way, as well as 5 Blues Music Awards, including BB King Entertainer of the Year (twice) and an induction into the Louisiana Music Hall of Fame.



“Salute to the USA is Avon’s most anticipated event this year and we are thrilled to welcome Tiny Universe from Karl Denson, Tab Benoit and the whole community,” said Danita Dempsey, Director of Culture, Arts and Avon special events. “We invite our locals and visitors to enjoy the tradition of this celebration once again with live music, a family entertainment area, festival-style food and, of course, the most spectacular fireworks display. that the state has to offer! “

For questions about Salute to the USA, please visit Avon.org/Salute.




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New instrument begins to measure total light ever emitted in the universe https://universoviviente.com/new-instrument-begins-to-measure-total-light-ever-emitted-in-the-universe/ https://universoviviente.com/new-instrument-begins-to-measure-total-light-ever-emitted-in-the-universe/#respond Tue, 08 Jun 2021 05:56:59 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/new-instrument-begins-to-measure-total-light-ever-emitted-in-the-universe/

A new instrument made a short jaunt into space this weekend, as part of a mission to measure total light never emitted in the history of the universe. The CIBER-2 project will search for stray stars hiding between galaxies by monitoring the cosmic background glow of infrared light.

The cosmic infrared background experiment-2 (CIBER-2) is designed, as the name suggests, to measure the cosmic infrared background. This uneven pattern of radiation permeates the universe, highlighting where galaxies cluster together, and its analysis can teach astronomers a lot about the distribution of stars and other objects in space.

On Sunday June 6, CIBER-2 made the first of five space trips to study this phenomenon. The instrument was launched on a NASA Black Brant IX sounding rocket from New Mexico, reaching an altitude of about 300 km (186 miles) for 10 minutes, before being returned to Earth.

The CIBER-2 instrument made its first of five flights to the edge of space

Caltech

During its time aloft, CIBER-2 sweeps over a patch of sky equivalent to about eight times the full moon. It takes measurements of the cosmic infrared background at six wavelengths, allowing scientists to later analyze the data to learn more about the stars or other objects that produced it.

This could help answer some important questions. The vast majority of stars are believed to reside in galaxies, but data from the Spitzer Space Telescope revealed there was more light in the cosmic infrared background than expected, based on known galaxy populations.

Two explanations for this have been put forward by different teams. One of them suggested that the extra light was coming from the very first stars and black holes that ever formed. The original CIBER mission, meanwhile, found evidence that there may be more stars roaming free outside galaxies than we thought.

CIBER-2 could help solve the problem by scanning the sky in more wavelengths than Spitzer or the original CIBER, allowing it to analyze spectra of light from different sources. For example, the very first stars and black holes would be enveloped in a fog of hydrogen, which permeated the early universe, and which would affect the spectrum of colors in their light. But stars that have formed more recently do not pass through this hydrogen, so their light is different.

“This background glow is the total light produced over the course of cosmic history,” says Jamie Bock, senior scientist at CIBER missions. “Our method measures the total light emitted over the course of cosmic history, including any sources that astronomers may have missed.”

After last weekend’s successful flight, CIBER-2 will be launched four more times over the next five years for further analysis. The data collected during the mission will help inform the design of a future telescope, called a Spectrophotometer for the History of the Universe, the Era of Reionization and the Ice Explorer (SPHEREx). Due to launch in 2024, SPHEREx will scan the sky at an astonishing 102 wavelengths over two years, for a truly deep look at the cosmic infrared background.

Source: Caltech


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Did a discovery of dark energy just prove that Einstein was wrong? Not enough. https://universoviviente.com/did-a-discovery-of-dark-energy-just-prove-that-einstein-was-wrong-not-enough/ https://universoviviente.com/did-a-discovery-of-dark-energy-just-prove-that-einstein-was-wrong-not-enough/#respond Mon, 07 Jun 2021 11:00:00 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/did-a-discovery-of-dark-energy-just-prove-that-einstein-was-wrong-not-enough/

The largest study of galaxies ever done suggests that our cosmos is not as dense as it is supposed to be. This lack of lumps could mean there’s a gap with Einstein’s general relativity theory, which scientists use to understand how the structures of our universe have evolved over 13 billion years.

“If this disparity is true, then maybe Einstein was wrong,” said Niall Jeffrey, one of the co-heads of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and cosmologist at the École Normale Supérieure, in Paris, told BBC News


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Marvel Universe’s greatest traitor has doubts https://universoviviente.com/marvel-universes-greatest-traitor-has-doubts/ https://universoviviente.com/marvel-universes-greatest-traitor-has-doubts/#respond Sun, 06 Jun 2021 18:20:00 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/marvel-universes-greatest-traitor-has-doubts/

This classic Marvel villain is best known for betraying the entire human race to alien invaders … but is he a monster or just misguided?

Warning: Contains minor spoilers for Iron Man # 9

One of the biggest traitors in the Marvel universe might have doubts in the next one Iron Man publish Iron Man # 9. The book, written by Christopher Cantwell with a cover of kingdom come artist Alex Ross, is about to re-narrate the events of the origin of Korvac, one of Marvel Comics’ most powerful and yet unknown villains. Preview pages have been released for the next issue and what was once considered a black and white debut for a villain now has shades of gray.

The man who would become Korvac was once Michael Korvac, an ordinary 3000 AD man in the far future of Earth. When a belligerent race of aliens called Badoon invaded Earth, Korvac made a deal with the invaders and sold the humans in exchange for employment with the regime (and his own survival, of course). Dissatisfied with his job, the Badoon punished Korvac by fusing his body with a machine, granting him powers in the process. So goes the original origin of Korvac, as said in Giant Defenders # 3 in 1975. But 45 years later, Korvac returned to the pages of Iron Man series and its origin is due to a modern narrative that promises to delve deeper into the true feelings of the traitor behind his actions.

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Related: Iron Man Explores Dark Origin Of The Avengers’ Most Powerful Villain

The preview pages take place on a Badoon ship, likely sometime before the Badoon conquered Earth. A group of three captured human soldiers collect their thoughts after being subjected to torture to obtain information regarding their organization. Korvac – apparently one of their own and not yet their enemy – arrives, and the group’s captain wonders why Korvac’s costume is immaculate while everyone else’s is damaged by the fighting. “Nice uniform… where have you been hiding the last few days while they separated us for information?” Korvac responds by pulling out his handgun and immediately shooting the three humans in the head.

Iron Man 9 cover

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Iron-Man-Korvac-Preview-3

Iron-Man-Korvac-Preview-4

It’s what happens after the shocking execution that matters, especially when it comes to Korvac’s character. After a Badoon commander mocks Korvac for selling his own species, Korvac returns to his assigned station in the ship … and begins to cry. Eventually, he is seen on the floor in a fetal position with his head in his hands. Commander Badoon grabs him, berates his slave for not knowing his place, and swears that Korvac will never leave his assigned monitor again, presumably leading him to his eventual conversion into a cyborg.

The original origin is quite different at the moment: Korvac was caught sleeping by a supervisor, no mourning. This small change brings an extra layer of dimension to the once simple character. The original story never really went into detail about exactly Why Korvac betrayed humanity, But Iron Man # 9 could reveal the reasons Korvac turned on his own… and the regrets he carries with him, potentially to this day.

Next: Even Stan Lee Admitted A Founder’s Power Of An X-Men Made No Sense

Iron Man Quantum Annual

Iron Man’s new foe has the perfect power to use against his armor



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A new mathematical formula could solve an old problem of understanding the structure of the universe https://universoviviente.com/a-new-mathematical-formula-could-solve-an-old-problem-of-understanding-the-structure-of-the-universe/ https://universoviviente.com/a-new-mathematical-formula-could-solve-an-old-problem-of-understanding-the-structure-of-the-universe/#respond Sat, 05 Jun 2021 19:35:47 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/a-new-mathematical-formula-could-solve-an-old-problem-of-understanding-the-structure-of-the-universe/

A Penn State scientist studying crystal structures has developed a new mathematical formula that could solve a decades-old problem in understanding space-time, the fabric of the universe proposed in Einstein’s theories of relativity .

“Relativity tells us that space and time can blend together to form a single entity called space-time, which is four-dimensional: three spatial axes and one time axis,” said Venkatraman Gopalan, professor of science and technology. engineering and materials engineering at Penn State. “However, something on the time axis sticks out like a sore thumb.”

For calculations to work under relativity, scientists need to put a negative sign on time values ​​that they don’t have to place on space values. Physicists have learned to work with negative values, but this means that spacetime cannot be dealt with using traditional Euclidean geometry and must instead be viewed with the more complex hyperbolic geometry.

Gopalan has developed a two-step mathematical approach that blurs the differences between space and time, removing the negative sign problem and serving as a bridge between the two geometries.

Renormalized mixed space-time

A diagram showing the process of creating a “renormalized mixed space-time”. Penn State scientist Venkatraman Gopalan studies crystal structures and has developed a new mathematical formula that could solve a decades-old problem in understanding space-time, the fabric of the universe proposed in theories of Einstein’s relativity. Credit: Hari Padmanabhan, State of Pennsylvania

“For over 100 years there has been an effort to equate space and time,” said Gopalan. “But that really didn’t happen because of that minus sign. This research removes that problem at least in special relativity. Space and time are really on the same footing in this work. The article, published on May 27, 2021, in the review Acta Crystallographica A, is accompanied by a commentary in which two physicists write that Gopalan’s approach may hold the key to unifying quantum mechanics and gravity, two fundamental areas of physics that have yet to be fully unified.

“Gopalan’s idea of ​​general relativistic space-time crystals and how to obtain them is both powerful and broad,” said Martin Bojowald, professor of physics at Penn State. “This research, in part, presents a new approach to a physics problem that has not been solved for decades.”

In addition to providing a new approach to relate space-time to traditional geometry, the research has implications for the development of new structures with exotic properties, known as space-time crystals.

Crystals contain repeated arrangements of atoms, and in recent years scientists have explored the concept of temporal crystals, in which the state of a material changes and is also repeated over time, like a dance. However, time is disconnected from space in these formulations. The method developed by Gopalan would allow the exploration of a new class of space-time crystals, where space and time can mix.

“These possibilities could pave the way for a whole new class of metamaterials with exotic properties otherwise unavailable in nature, in addition to understanding the fundamental attributes of a number of dynamic systems,” said Avadh Saxena, a physicist at the National Laboratory. from Los Alamos.

Gopalan’s method consists of mixing two separate observations of the same event. Mixing occurs when two observers exchange temporal coordinates but keep their own spatial coordinates. With an additional mathematical step called renormalization, this leads to a “renormalized mixed space-time”.

“Let’s say I’m on the ground and you’re flying on the space station, and we both observe an event like a comet hovering over,” Gopalan said. “You take your measurement of when and where you saw it, and I take mine of the same event, and then we compare the notes. I then adopt your measure of time as mine, but I keep my original spatial measure of the comet. You in turn adopt my measure of time as yours, but keep your own measure of the comet’s space. From a mathematical standpoint, if we do this mixing of our measurements, the boring minus sign disappears.

The references:

“Relativistic space-time crystals” by V. Gopalan, May 27, Acta Crystallographica A.
DOI: 10.1107 / S2053273321003259

“From crystal color symmetry to quantum spacetime” by M. Bojowald and A. Saxena, May 27, Acta Crystallographica A.
DOI: 10.1107 / S2053273321005234

The National Science Foundation funded this research.


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The first matter of the universe may have been a perfect fluid https://universoviviente.com/the-first-matter-of-the-universe-may-have-been-a-perfect-fluid/ https://universoviviente.com/the-first-matter-of-the-universe-may-have-been-a-perfect-fluid/#respond Sat, 05 Jun 2021 08:01:25 +0000 https://universoviviente.com/the-first-matter-of-the-universe-may-have-been-a-perfect-fluid/

By crushing the lead particles at a speed of 99.9999991% of the speed of light, the scientists recreated the first material to appear later. big Bang..

From this shipwreck was born a primitive type of substance called quark-gluon plasma (QGP). It only lasted a moment, but for the first time scientists plasmaIts liquid-like properties – less resistance to flow than other known materials – and determine its evolution in the first moments of the early universe.


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